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Arunachal Pradesh lies on the topographical fronts of Himalayan plateau in the easternmost corner of India. It enjoys a climate with transitionally three distinct components and the altitude varies with elevation toward north from 3500 m to 7500 m on the Indo-China borderlands. The middle hilly terrain of the eastern Himalayan extension and Siwalik Hills rising to altitude of about 1500 m to 2000 m are prominent feature of this longitudinal zone. The south east hill plains form the third component, which is conducive for different species of livestock rearing. The economic condition of the larger population of the state basically dependent on animal husbandry intertwined between agriculture, which supplements the income level of the poor farmers, may it be children education, social events or marriages. Livestock and every household in Arunachal Pradesh own a pair of cattle, yaks, goats, few pigs, fowls etc. The Mithun (Bos frontalis) which is an animal indistinguishable to Arunachal Pradesh and is considered to constitute capital assets of a person. So, Animal Husbandry in Arunachal Pradesh forms a part and parcel of the people as well as the state's economy. The Livestock Sector in Arunachal Pradesh contributes about 8% of the states net domestic product where Agri and allied sector contributes 24.6%. With growing education level and increase of unemployed educated youth in Arunachal Pradesh the Dairy and the poultry farming activities have started accelerating during the last ten years with a view to generating self employment for the rural youths.
Department of A. H Veterinary and Dairy Development pioneer the economy of the tribal people of the state where the coverage of animal health services delivery centres is 9.7 villages per Veterinary Service delivery Centre with near about 18000 livestock cover per centre. To provide the animal husbandry health care facilities to the farmers of the state there are 3 Disease Investigation Labs, 1 Vety Hospitals at state capital Itanagar, 93 Veterinary Dispensaries, 14 Mobile Veterinary Units with Disease Diagnostic labs, 155 Veterinary Aid Centre's (VAC), 120 Cattle Upgrading Centre's (CUC), 1 Key Village Block with 30 sub centres, 1 Vaccine depot attached to DIL Nirjuli, 7 Sheep and Wool extension centres, Beside these health coverage institutes there are also 1 Composite Livestock Farm, 10 District Cattle Breeding Farms, 13 District Poultry Farms including 1 Central Poultry Farm with Hatchery, 6 Pig Breeding Farms including Regional Pig Breeding farm Loilang, 1 Regional Sheep Breeding Farm, 1 Mithun Breeding Farm, 1 Yak Conservation cum Breeding Centre at Chandar, 1 Pony Conservation Farm at Tawang.
The Government of Arunachal Pradesh has approved formation of Arunachal Pradesh Livestock Development Society (APLDS) with Director (AHV) as Chief Executing Officer and Commissioner (AHV) as Chairman. The funds received from NPCBB under Government of India sponsored scheme are streamlining the crossbreeding activities in the state. A Livestock Policy was adopted by the Govt. of Arunachal Pradesh in the year 2009.
The Dairy Development sector was added to the Department of A.H & Veterinary in the year 1994-95 by the Government of Arunachal Pradesh vide GoAP order No. AHV/P-1020 Dated 1995 after sanction of an Integrated Dairy Development Project by the Government of India. The activities of the Dairy Development are handled by the Managing Director, (IDDP) for maintenance of a 5 TLPD Dairy Processing Plant and 2 TPLD Chilling centre established at Karsingsa, Itanagar and Pasighat, East Siang district with 38 Dairy Cooperative Societies. The extension of the IDDP project to 3 districts viz. Papum-pare, East Siang and West Siang districts has been approved by the Govt. of India with approval of formation of the Arunachal Pradesh Cooperative Milk Producers Union Limited (ARUMUL) as implementing agency with Secretary (AHV) as its Chairman. At present processed milk by the brand name of "ARUN DAIRY" is marketed under the programme.